gravity thickeners design

  • Conventional Gravity Thickeners

    Conventional Gravity Thickener Overview: WesTech''s complete line of high rate, heavy duty thickeners offers the most advanced designs for use in the industry. WesTech equipment is engineered and manufactured to the highest standard in quality. It offers the precision and durability required to …


    Similar to the digesters, there are two design approaches in thickeners too: 1. Design based on experience. 2. Design based on Iaboratory data. 1. Design based on experience Solids throughput is an important criterion in the design of thickeners. The design is2

  • Gravity Thickeners for Activated Sludge

    GRAVITY THICKENERS FOR ACTIVATED SLUDGE Anton E. Span and Vincent Grippi The activated sludge process gained a foothold in the United States when operations were initiated at San Mar cos, Texas, in 1916 and in two Houston plants during the ensuing


    Gravity thickeners are either continuous flow or fill and draw type, with or without addition of chemicals. Use of slowly revolving stirrers improves the efficiency. Continuous flow tanks are deep circular tanks with central feed and overflow at the periphery. Part B ...


    The gravity thickening design is similar to a clarifier. Thickeners are usually circular-shaped; the feed is carried out through a pipe to a central hood serving as distribution and still area, with a height that has no effect on compaction or compression bottom area.

  • What is the Sludge Thickening Process in Water Treatment?

     · A gravity thickener has a similar process to the tanks, but it has a sloped design so that solids collect at the base. Dissolved-air flotation is another type of sludge-thickening process. Small air particles attach to the suspended solid material.

  • Biosolids Technology Fact Sheet Gravity Thickening

    Gravity thickener designs usually include circular tanks, 3-4 m (10-13 ft) deep and up to 25 m (82 ft) in diameter. The dimensions are based on prediction of settling due to gravity alone. To assist solids transport, gravity thickener bottoms are constructed with a floor slope between 1:6 and 1:3.

  • Thickener Feed System Design

    Many thickeners suffer from short circuiting and high flocculant consumption because of poor feedwell design, as shown in Figure 1 below. The rotational flow in the feedwell is often carried into the body of the thickener and has the effect of "blowing out" on the side opposite to the feed entrance.

  • الصفحات الشخصية

    5.7 Design of gravity thickeners:-Primary and secondary sludge are either treated in separate thickeners or in one common thickener. The following table gives the design criteria for gravity thickeners according to the sludge source:-Sludge source Influent SS (%) ...

  • Alfa Laval belt thickeners help build wastewater treatment …

    ids by gravity drainage through a 3-metre-wide porous filter belt. The new thickeners were configured to process waste activated sludge (WAS) and Three-Phase Separator (TPS) sludge. Alfa Laval belt thickeners help build wastewater treatment capacity in New ...

  • Gravity Sludge Thickener – Rock Water Equipment

    The RockWater gravity thickeners are designed to create an improved design application involving sludge thickening. The solids are thickened by gravity, then collected at the bottom of the basin and raked to a collection sump for removal by from the thickener


    the gravity thickening process. The model is based on an analysis of transport phenomena within the sludge layer during thickening. By using this new mathematical mode l to predict thickening behavior, design of thickeners as well as design for the thickening

  • 🚧 Sludge treatment − gravity thickening | Sludge Processing

     · Gravity thickeners generally retain 80−90% of the solids in the thickened product stream, depending on the sludge characteristics and the efficiency of the preceding conditioning stage. The sludge characteristics also govern the solids …

  • Gravity Thickener Design Example

     · FIG. 7.46.2 Gravity thickener design data plots. Data plot procedure: 1. Conduct settling tests at various initial solids concentrations (a through d in panel A), …

  • 🚧 Sludge treatment − gravity thickening | Sludge Processing

     · Gravity thickeners generally retain 80−90% of the solids in the thickened product stream, depending on the sludge characteristics and the efficiency of the preceding conditioning stage. The sludge characteristics also govern the solids loading rate (SLR), which is the rate in kg/d at which the sludge dry solids enter the process per unit process cross-sectional area.

  • Gravity thickeners and clarifiers

    Gravity thickeners and clarifiers The process of thickening involves the concentration of a slurry, suspension, or sludge, usually by gravity settling . Because concentrated suspensions and/ or fine particle dispersions are often involved, the result is usually not a complete separation of the solids from the liquid but is instead a separation into a more concentrated (underflow) stream and a ...

  • Gravity Thickening: Gravity Thickeners

    Gravity Thickeners Back to Product Search Type RS Pier Supported Thickeners, 30 feet and greater The RS Thickener mechanism consists of two fabricated steel arms supported from a central rotating drive cage. The cage is suspended from an enclosed spur ...


    DELKORs Gravity Dilution system has the capability of adding very large volumes of dilution liquor through the double concentric ring design. Operating data from one installation shows high feed volumes at 40 % being diluted to 12 % solids using the system


    • Gravity thickeners (or primary clarifiers if used for in-tank thickening) • Dissolved air flotation thickeners • Gravity belt thickeners ... design conditions. Water Environment Federation Alexandria, VA 22314 Acknowledgments WEF Residuals and Biosolids ...

  • Biosolids Technology Fact Sheet Gravity Thickening


  • MODULE 9.

    Design of wastewater treatment sludge thickeners The principal design criterion is solids loading expressed in units of kilograms of solids applied per square meter of bottom area per day (kg/m2.d). Typical loading values and thickened sludge concentrations based on …

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  • Software for the design and simulation of gravity …

     · In this work, we extend that work to the design of industrial thickeners. The first part of the design procedure makes use of the solution of the phenomenological model at steady state. The result is an equation similar to that of Coe and Clevenger (1916) that seeks for the maximum unit area obtained from the experimental data.

  • Sludge Thickening Concentration

     · The design parameters of gravity thickeners for different types of sludges are listed in Table 7.2. Centrifuges are used both in thickening and dewatering of sludge. Centrifugal thickening involves the settling of particles in watery sludge under the influence of ...

  • Fact Sheet: Gravity Thickening | Biosolids | US EPA

    Gravity thickening is the process by which biosolids are condensed to produce a concentrated solids product and a relatively solids-free supernatant. The biosolids technology fact sheet for gravity thickening provides: Advantages and disadvantages of gravity thickening. You may need a PDF reader to view some of the files on this page.

  • Theory and Application of Thickener Design

    Theory and Application of Thickener Design A G WATERS ABSTRACT THEORY the sedimentation vessel has a constant cross-sectionalarea the process is one-dimensional and so there is no radial variation in concentration for any horizontallaycr iii) the slurry

  • Difference Between Clarifier and Thickener

     · Thickeners are used to concentrate solids, while clarifiers are used to purify liquids. A thickener will give you a high density underflow while a clarifier will not. The clarifier overflow is typically cleaner or clearer than the thickener overflow would be. Clarifiers, depending on the application – that can be used to recover immediately ...

  • Improve Clarifier and Thickener Design and Operation

    A design method for thickeners and clarifiers known as the batch flux curve technique was developed over 20 years ago, but still is not well-known in design and operating circles. An informal survey of major clarifier and thickener manufacturers found that none of the firms surveyed use this method for sizing and maximizing operating conditions.

  • Raking in gravity thickeners

     · Although thickener rakes are essential in the transport of bed material to the underflow in conventional thickener designs, and effective rake design and operation can reduce the likelihood of rat-holing, little is known about transport due to rake action in thickeners. The literature describing raking consists of just a handful of previous ...

  • How to Size a Thickener

     · Place a measured quantity of pulp at a known density in a beaker or glass cylinder. Fix a narrow strip of paper on one side of the container. Mix pulp thoroughly. Draw a line on the paper at the top of the pulp and mark "0" minutes. For five minutes, at one-min­ute intervals, mark the point to which the solids have settled.


    THICKENERS. A thickener is an equipment structure used for the continuous gravity settling (sedimentation) of solids in suspensions. Suspension is fed into one or more basins or chambers and, whilst it is passing through, the solids settle out. The thickened solids are removed together with a portion of the liquid as thickened "underflow".

  • Design Guidelines For Sewage Works: Sludge thickening …

     · 17.3.1 Design Considerations Sludge thickeners to reduce the volume of sludge should be considered to reduce the required digester capacity. The design of thickeners (gravity, dissolved-air flotation, centrifuge, gravity belt thickeners, rotary drum screens and ...

  • Thickening

    Highly efficient thickening for any fiber processing application. ANDRITZ offers a range of thickeners with different machine concepts in order to meet highest demands as to consistency, throughput and availability. Our thickeners are perfectly suited for the processing of and recycled fibers, broke as well as mechanical pulp.

  • Example 1 Design gravity thickeners for a wastewater …

    Use two gravity thickeners and check solids loading and hydraulic loading rates versus typical design standards criteria. Type of sludge Solids, % Flow rate, gpd Average design conditions: Primary sludge 3.3 106,000 Waste-activated 0.2 594,000 Peak design

  • How to Size a Thickener

     · Fix a narrow strip of paper on one side of the container. Mix pulp thoroughly. Draw a line on the paper at the top of the pulp and mark "0" minutes. For five minutes, at one-min­ute intervals, mark the point to which the solids have settled. This determines the …

  • 20 Years of AMIRA P266 "Improving Thickener Technology" — …

    This has produced unique tools for thickener design and optimisation. The major outcomes from P266 over this 20 year period are reviewed. 1 Introduction Solid-liquid separation by gravitational settling has long been used in many applications. Gravity thickeners ...

  • GBT – Gravity Belt Thickener

    The design encloses the feed dis-tribution assembly, gravity deck, fil-trate collection pan and thickened cake discharge. Units are avail-able in width from 0.5 meter to 4 meter. The enclosed GBT can be provide with manual or automatic tensioning and track- 4 5


    gravity thickening. Gravity thickening of sludge is defined as a process by which particles, or aggregates of particles of dilute sludge, due to their greater specific gravity, settle through water and concentrate. Besides reducing subsequent chemical and volumetric

  • Thickeners

     · Thickeners, equipped with the patented spiral scrapers and angle rakes are a distinct improvement over all types of mechanical raking devices now in use. Specifications and thickener rake design All Thickeners have the same general specifications, varying only as to type of machine.

  • Gravity Belt Thickener by Aqualitec

    The OMEGA Gravity Belt Thickener is designed for continuous mechanical thickening of municipal or industrial sludge. Customers use OMEGA in a number of sludge thickening applications: As a final step to increase the dry solids concentration to 6-8%, replacing conventional gravity static thickeners, flotation systems, and other inefficient technologies.

  • Lec 32: Gravity Sedimentation

     · Mechanical Unit OperationsCourse Link: /nd1_noc19_ch32/...Prof. Nanda KishoreDept. of Chemical EngineeringIIT Guwahati


     · GRAVITY THICKENER (SEDIMENTATION) Gravity thickener is essentially a sedimentation process similar to the process that occurs in all settling tanks. It is the most common process currently used for dewatering and for the concentration of sludge before digestion. It is accomplished in a sedimentation tank in which solids separate from liquid phase ...

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